While the vast majority of adoptions involve adults adopting children, all states have laws that permit “adult adoption,” in which a person 18 or older is adopted by another adult as mutually agreed by the parties. Some states may restrict adult adoptions to cases where the person being adopted is of diminished capacity. If the person being adopted is married, some states require the spouse to consent. Other states simply require the two adults to consent to the adoption.
Why would an adult want to be adopted?
There are typically three reasons why adults choose to adopt another adult. The most common reason is inheritance. Whether it takes place when the adopted party is a child or an adult, the adoption creates a legally recognized parent-child relationship, enabling the adoptive child to inherit property from the adoptive parents in accordance with state law.
Secondly, adult adoptions can be used to formalize a parent-child relationship. For example, there may have previously existed a stepparent-stepchild, or foster parent-foster child relationship, and the adult parties now wish to formally recognize the relationship.
Finally, adult adoption can help ensure perpetual care for a person of diminished capacity. Formally adopting the adult with special needs may enable him or her to qualify for lifetime care under family insurance, and can help ensure assets pass to the adoptive child.
As with any traditional adoption of a minor child, an adult adoption triggers several significant, legal changes. When the adoption is finalized, the parental relationship with the biological parents is severed, and a new parent-child relationship is created. A new birth certificate will be issued, bearing the adoptive parents’ names, and the adoptive child may change his or her last name to that of the adoptive parents.